Allies- The Allied Powers during World War II consisted of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union among other.
Atlantic Pact-started in 1949 also known as NATO, the Atlantic Pact was a defensive alliance of twelve nations: United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Atlantic Pact served as a military, political and economic alliance of these nations against communist countries
Axis- The Axis Powers during World War II consisted of Nazi Germany, Japan, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia.
Bilbao- During the Spanish Civil War, the Battle of Bilbao was key fight in the war between the Basques and the Nationalist. The city of Bilbao was the last remaining Basque stronghold and was eventually taken by the Spanish nationalist when the battle took place on June 11, 1937,
Bear Market- A stock market in which prices are expected to fall. A widespread belief that prices are more likely to fall than to rise, at least in the immediate future, leads investors to sell shares or defer purchases
Benito Mussolini- The fascist leader of Italy during World War II, Mussolini was the main ally of Adolf Hitler and Nazi German. He was elected as Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 but soon used his title to take full control of Italy. He gave himself “Il Duce” (The Duke) to signify his full control of the Italian government. He died on April 28, 1945.
Bull Market- A stock market in which prices are expected to rise. A widespread belief that prices are more likely to rise than to fall, at least in the immediate future, leads investors to buy shares or defer sales.
Communism-a political philosophy based on a concept of communal ownership. From the end of WWII until the late 1980s tensions between the United States and communist countries defined domestic and foreign policy. This tension manifested itself as the Cold War.
Declaration of Central America-1963 statement delivered by the Presidents of Central America to United States President John F. Kennedy. The Declaration focused its messages on addressing social problems and encouraging economic development.
Dewey Probe-Investigation by Manhattan District Attorney Thomas Dewey into the racketeering of the Tammany Hall mob/political machine
Donkey-the symbol of the Democratic Party. Political cartoonist Thomas Nast is credited with first using the Donkey motif in political cartoons during the 1840s. Images of the Donkey in regards to the Democratic Party had been used in the past but they did not truly become pop culture until Nast.
Federal Reserve Board-oversees the central banking system of the United States. Established in 1918 the Federal Reserve conducts research and adjusts monetary policies to deal with changes and financial crisis. The Federal Reserve functions to regulate banks and maintain the stability of the United States economy.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)- The 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt served four terms as commander and chief. Elected in 1933, FDR guided the nation through difficult times like the Great Depression and World War II. FDR’s legacy can be seen in the New Deal which was an economic program designed to lift the nations out of the Great Depression. He died on March 29, 1945.
Free Trade-The basis of free trade is the concept that commerce should be allowed to function without the imposition of tariffs, quotas or restrictions by the government. Those who oppose free trade usually support high tariffs on foreign imports and are referred to as protectionists.
Gallup Poll- The Gallup poll is a public opinion poll of the President of the United States conducted by the non-government organization called the Institute of Public Opinion. The poll is named after the founder of the institute, George Gallup.
Georgia Purge- During his “purge” period during his second presidential term, Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to “purge” democratic congressmen who did not agree with his New Deal policies. From Georgia, FDR wanted to replace incumbent congressman Walter George in favor of a more liberal challenger. The purge would prove to be one of the biggest political missteps for FDR.
G.O.P-a commonly used nickname for the Republican Party, stands for “Grand Old Party”
Great Depression-Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929 the Stock Market crashed starting a severe economic downturn that lasted until the mid 1930s.
Hammer and Sickle-symbols that made up the emblem of the former Soviet Union and were recognized as symbols of communism
Herbert Hoover- The 31st President of the United States, Herbert Hoover served from 1929-1933. Hoover had the unfortunate favor of serving as President during the onset of the Great Depression. He also served as the US Secretary of Commerce under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Hoover would fail to get a second term as President as he lost to Democratic nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Hiram Johnson-governor of California 1911-1917, Senator 1917-1945. Johnson was known as a populist reformer
Hines Trial-A famous trial in March of 1939 in which New York Tammany Hall mob boss Jimmy Hines was sentenced to four to eight years in prison on accusations of racketeering. Hines operated as head of the Tammany Hall political machine from 1933-1939. The trial served to rocket Manhattan District Attorney Thomas Dewey to fame.
Huey Long-1893–1935, a Lousiana political leader and populist reformer. Huey Long worked on taking down the Standard Oil monopoly. He was nicknamed Kingfish for the power and control he held over the Louisiana political machine
James Farley- Farley held many political titles during his career. He was especially prominent during FDR’s presidency where he held two titles, United States Postmaster General and Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He held both offices from 1932-1940.
James Gillespie Blaine-January 31, 1830- January 27, 1893.James G. Blaine was an American politician who served terms in the House of Representatives 1863-1876, Senate 1876-1881, and as Secretary of State 1881 and 1889-1892. Blaine was a prominent figure in the Republican party. During the 1870s Blaine’s political reputation became stained by a scandal involving Blaine and the Northern Pacific Railroad. Blaine was accused of taking bribes from the Railroad and a Congressional investigation ensued. The scandal served as one of the defining aspects in Blaine’s political reputation and ruined his chances at the presidency.
Jefferson Island- The vacation location for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jefferson Island is located in the Chesapeake Bay. Not only did FDR use the island as vacation spot, he also used the island to host “stag parties” for his fellow democratic politicians.
John Bull- a phrase which refers to the “personification of England or the typical Englishman.” Oxford English Dictionary
Junta-a military or political group that rules a country after taking power by force
Lend Lease Bill- A bill enacted during the United States involvement in World War II which provided foreign aid to allied nations during the war. The Bill, while perceived as patriotic, was not well accepted by the American public as President Franklin D. Roosevelt was asking the public to blindly trust the Bill and what it stood for.
Lyndon B. Johnson- The 36th President of the United States, Johnson served from 1963 to 1969. He succeeded to his presidency after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Johnson’s legacy as president is what is known as the “Great Society” Legislation that included laws that upheld civil rights, Medicare, and the war of poverty, among others.
Maryland Purge- During his “purge” period during his second presidential term, Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to “purge” democratic congressmen who did not agree with his New Deal policies. From Maryland, FDR wanted to replace incumbent congressman Millard Tydings in favor of a more liberal challenger. The purge would prove to be one of the biggest political missteps for FDR.
Modern Mechanized Warfare- Also known as armored warfare, modern mechanized warfare represents the use of tanks and other armored vehicles during war. First seen in World War I, armored vehicles replaced cavalry units on the front line of the battlefield. Armored vehicles quickly became an essential for wars like World War I and World War II.
Monroe Doctrine-foreign policy instituted under President James Monroe in 1823. Published in a statement to Congress that declared that the United States would see any interference by Europe in the western hemisphere as a threat to American safety and sovereignty. The Doctrine asserted the United States’s authority to intervene in the affairs of various countries in the Americas to defend and protect them from foreign “threats.”
New Deal- A government economic program that was implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933-1936 to help the nation recover from the Great Depression. The program saw two distinct waves. The First New Deal, in 1933, focused on helping certain industries including agriculture, banking, and railroads. The Second New Deal, saw the passage of certain legislation to help with the slumping economy. Legislation like the Wagner act which promoted labor unions, the Works Progress Administration relief program, as well as the Social Security Act. This radical economic program is considered to be Roosevelt’s legacy.
The Neutrality Act- Put in place during the 1930s, the Neutrality Act meant to keep the United States out of World War II. The public opinion of this Act was poor as it made no distinction between aggressor and victim. The Act also limited the ability of the United States to provide aid to Great Britain as it was being attacked by Nazi Germany. The Neutrality Act was repealed in the wake of the Lend-Lease Act of 1941.
Nikita Khrushchev-head of the Communist Party and the premier of the Soviet Union from 1958-1964. Acted as leader of the Soviet Union through many of the conflicts of the Cold War, such as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Old Army Mule- In the time of modern mechanized warfare, the US was behind its enemies in terms of tank and artillery technology. The “old army mule” represents how the US was not as advanced as other countries. The United States military used mules to transport artillery in the time before the mechanization of artillery.
Progress Alliance- a partnership between the United States and Latin America, initiated by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. The alliance was focused on promoting economic and social development in Latin American nations.
Puck-a popular weekly magazine 1877-1918, the magazine was characterized by political cartoons and satires on contemporary events
Red Cuba-a label which designated Cuba as a “red” or communist nation. During the Cold War the color red was synonymous with communism.
Red Spearhead-a term that generally means to be the lead element in a hasty and violent military assault
Rumanian Revolt- In an attempt to break the hold Nazi Germany held over Romania, members of the Iron Guard rose up against the Nazi regime on January 21, 1941 in Bucharest. This act would prove to be deadly for the iron guard as they were overwhelmed by the Nazi forces. Romania remained under the Nazi party for the remainder of the war.
Russo-German Treaty- Sign in 1939, The Russo-German Treaty (also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) was a nonaggression pact between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia. Hitler would eventually break the treaty with his invasion of Russia in June 1941.
Turkish Allied Pact- The nation of Turkey had made a pact with Great Britain and France in the early years of World War II. However, Turkey quickly nullified the pact in favor of siding with Italy in the war.
Uncle Sam- The personification of the collective United States nation, Uncle Sam has grown into the universal symbol of the American people. The first appearance of Uncle Sam was in the 1816 allegorical book The Adventures of Uncle Sam in Search after His Lost Honor by Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy. Uncle Sam is most famous for his appearance in government propaganda.
Washington Monument-commissioned in 1848 the Washington Monument was built to honor President and Founding Father George Washington. The Monument was finished in 1884 and opened to the public in 1886.
William McAdoo- The Secretary of the Treasury from 1913-1918 under President Woodrow Wilson. Also, Senator of California from 1933-1938. McAdoo was an avid supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt during his third presidential campaign.
Willkie Democrat- A splinter group of the Democratic Party that backed Republican candidate William Willkie in the 1940 Presidential Election. This group represented those in the Democratic Party who were not in favor of the then President Franklin D. Roosevelt serving a third term.