Gen. F. Edmunds, “Dealer in John Bull Scarecrows,” was actually a senator from Vermont during the years from 1866-1891. As senator, Edmunds was known for being an economic protectionist. Protectionists supported high tariffs on foreign imports in order to protect American products and industries. Protectionists policies kept the price of foreign manufactured goods high but also forced the price of raw materials up within the American market. In this cartoon the artist makes the argument that as a protectionist, the economic policies of General Edwards are helping foreign nations like Great Britain more than they are helping the United States. England is represented in this cartoon by the depiction of the John Bull scarecrows. John Bull was a term that had come to be used to refer to a “personification of England or the typical Englishman.”
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